To search Google efficiently, remember that the more terms you include, the fewer but more relevant pages should be in your results. You can search for a specific type of web file by using the filetype: command before a file extension... for example filetype:ppt to find PowerPoint files. Or, you can use the site: command before part of a URL to search for only certain types of websites: site:gov to find government websites, or site:nctm.org to search only on the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, for example.
Searching Google Scholar can find the same sort of published research you would find using our article databases. Results are typically sorted with 'highly cited' articles at the top, but options for specific and specialized searching are limited. One advantage of Google Scholar is that it can find words inside of articles... but these results may include items where your term is mentioned only in passing or in the bibliography.
Google book search can be useful for finding specific mentions of your topic inside the full text of books. It is also useful as an index to your book; if you can find your book on Google Books, you can search within it to locate a term on specific pages. You will not likely be able to read the full text, but you can often use the UT or OhioLINK catalog to get the full book.