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Evidence-Based Practice: Unfiltered Resources

Unfiltered Resources

Evidence is not always available via filtered resources. Searching the primary literature may be required. It is possible to use specific search strategies in MEDLINE and other databases to achieve the highest possible level of evidence.


PubMed is the free version of MEDLINE made available by National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). Searchers on the University of Toledo Health Science Campus or those who are registered with the Mulford Library should search PubMed@UToledo; it tells PubMed to show information about locally-available online journals.

To include locally-available online journals for the PubMed search via the Entrez cross-database search page use this URL:,mcolib_fft,f1000&otool=mcolib.

To limit your PubMed search to the best evidence-producing studies: Click on "clinical queries" (on the left side of the screen). This specialized search is intended for clinicians and has built-in search "filters." Four study categories--therapy, diagnosis, etiology, prognosis--are provided, and you may indicate whether you wish your search to be more sensitive (i.e., include most relevant articles but probably including some less relevant ones) or more specific (i.e., including mostly relevant articles but probably omit a few).

EBSCOhost Medline

EBSCOhost MEDLINE also provides links to the full-text articles that are available at the Mulford Library.

To limit your EBSCOhost MEDLINE search to the best evidence-producing studies: Clinical Queries (See PubMed) is searchable in EBSCOhost; Limit your results with options from the "Clinical Queries" dropdown menu on the initial search page, OR click on "Search Options" and select from the "Clinical Queries" dropdown menu after doing the search.

APA Psycinfo

International coverage of the professional and academic literature in psychology, medicine, psychiatry, nursing, sociology, education, pharmacology, physiology, linguistics, and other areas.

To limit your APA Psycinfo search to the best evidence-producing studies: Click on the ‘Limits’ icon to use ‘Clinical Queries’ or limit to ‘methodology’ types.


CINAHL (the main database for nursing and allied health literature) indexes articles from the professional journal literature from 1982 to the present (though some journal titles are retrospectively indexed back to 1937). Articles from more than 1000 journals are covered, as well as books, pamphlets, dissertations, books and chapters, audiovisuals, research instruments, evidence-based care sheets, software, and more.

To limit your CINAHL search to the best evidence-producing studies: Click on the ‘Limits’ icon to use ‘Clinical Queries’ or limit to ‘Research’ or other ‘publication’ types (i.e., systematic review).

Mulford Library help guides | tutorials  ~  CINAHL tutorials

Background Information / Expert Opinion

Note: Evidence in these resources may vary from expert opinion to high levels of evidence.