Case-control studies are a type of quantitative research "designed to sample a group of people with and a group of people without the disease or the outcome measure being studied" (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p. 209). The cases are individuals with the disease or outcome measure, and the controls are individuals without the disease or outcome measure. The purpose of a case-control study is to test whether there is an association between an exposure and a disease, condition or outcome measure (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p. 209).
Each JBI Checklist provides tips and guidance on what to look for to answer each question. These tips begin on page 4.
|Frequently Asked Question||Response|
|In regards to Question 6, what exactly is a confounding factor?||A confounder or confounding factor/confounding variable is often referred to as a third variable that could potentially impact the study's results. Read a definition and description here. Confounding factors/variables or confounders may be listed in the study's limitations section or within the study's main results section.|
|For Question 7, how can I tell whether strategies were used to deal with the confounding factors in the study?||Check for multivariate analysis or regression analysis in the study's data analysis/statistical analysis section. Read a definition and description here.|
For more help: Each JBI Checklist provides detailed guidance on what to look for to answer each question on the checklist. These explanatory notes begin on page four of each Checklist. Please review these carefully as you conduct critical appraisal using JBI tools.
Dey, T., Mukherjee, A., & Chakraborty, S. (2020). A practical overview of case-control studies in clinical practice. Chest, 158(1S), S57–S64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.03.009
Dupépé, E. B., Kicielinski, K. P., Gordon, A. S., & Walters, B. C. (2019). What is a case-control study? Neurosurgery, 84(4), 819–826. https://doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyy590
Herbert R. (2017). Case-control studies. Journal of physiotherapy, 63(4), 264–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphys.2017.08.007
Schulz, K. F., & Grimes, D. A. (2002). Case-control studies: Research in reverse. Lancet, 359(9304), 431–434. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07605-5
Song, J. W., & Chung, K. C. (2010). Observational studies: Cohort and case-control studies. Plastic and reconstructive surgery, 126(6), 2234–2242. https://doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181f44abc