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NURS 7920: Outcome Methods for Advanced Practice Nurses

This LibGuide is designed to support students in the NURS 7920 course with links to resources and information on research study design and methodology, statistical methods, and finding/evaluating outcome measurement tools.

Evidence Synthesis: Getting Started

Evidence synthesis involves the bringing together of the key findings from research studies in an organized, structured, and methodical way. Synthesis can be done in a variety of ways using different methods.

This page provides access to recommended articles and e-books related to evidence synthesis and various review types. These resources are meant to increase your understanding of evidence synthesis and its importance within the evidence-based practice process. Click the links below to jump to specific sections of this page:

Recommended Readings on Evidence Synthesis

The following articles provide information on the methods used to effectively and efficiently synthesize evidence from research studies, including: 

  • Creating an evidence synthesis/summary table
  • Different review types for synthesizing evidence (i.e. systematic reviews, integrative reviews, meta-analysis, meta-synthesis, etc.)

Click the links below to access these readings in full-text. After clicking the links below, proceed to the full-text by either clicking the PDF Full-Text or FindIt@UT icons. 


Bowden, V. R. (2021). Types of reviews - Part 1: Systematic reviewsPediatric Nursing47(6), 301–304.

Bowden, V. R. (2022). Types of reviews - Part 2: Meta-analysis and meta-synthesisPediatric Nursing48(1), 43–49.

Bowden, V. R. (2022). Types of Reviews - Part 3: Literature review, integrative review, scoping reviewPediatric Nursing48(2), 97–100.

Davies, A. (2019). Carrying out systematic literature reviews: An introductionBritish Journal of Nursing28(15), 1008–1014. (*This article provides an excellent summary of both quantitative and qualitative systematic reviews)

Fineout-Overholt E., Melnyk B.M., Stillwell S.B., & Williamson K.M. (2010). The process of synthesis: Seeing similarities and differences across the body of evidenceAmerican Journal of Nursing110(11), 43–51 (*Note: Although this article was published over ten years ago in 2010, it is widely recognized as a classic resource on evidence synthesis. The principles are timeless and applicable in today's EBP environment. This article provides a good example of an evidence synthesis table.)

Sutton, A., Clowes, M., Preston, L., & Booth, A. (2019). Meeting the review family: Exploring review types and associated information retrieval requirementsHealth Information & Libraries Journal36(3), 202–222. (*Refer to Table 3 on pp. 206-10 for helpful descriptions of various review types)

E-Books from the UToledo Libraries on Evidence Synthesis

See Chapter 8: How to Synthesize

See Chapter 6: Synthesis Folder - How to Write a Synthesis

The chapters throughout this book describe different types of systematic reviews for various types of evidence (i.e. experimental research, observational studies, qualitative, etc.) 

This comprehensive guide outlines the process of conducting an integrative review of the literature, and how this process differs from other review types