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ENGL 1100/1110/1120: Journals vs. Magazine

Journal articles: Summary

Research or scholarly articles generally have several characteristics that define them.  They:

  • are written by and for academic faculty, researchers and/or experts
  • use technical or field-specific vocabulary
  • give full bibliographic references (AKA a "Works Cited List")
  • are published mostly in academic journals, with titles like the American Journal of Sociology
  • are generally sober and serious in tone
  • may have charts, graphs and table but are not glossy and colorful like magazines
  • often report results of research

The most prestigous research articles are "peer-reviewed", meaning they are edited by an expert panel.

Characteristics of Journals vs. Magazines

Below is a listing of general characteristics which can be used to identify differences between popular magazines and scholarly journals. Some magazines and journals, however, may not meet all the criteria in any one category. Some publications may mix 'magazine' content with more scholarly 'journal articles', so judge by the individual article as well as the entire publication.  Besides, with the availability of full text articles from databases, it may be difficult to judge characteristics of the publication as a whole.

Popular Magazines Scholarly Journals*
Appearance Attractive appearance, Eye-catching cover
Pictures and illustrations in color
Glossy paper

Plain cover
May contain graphs, charts or case studies
Plain paper


Non-professionals, General audience
Written in non-technical language

Professors, scholars, researchers, or students
Written in the technical language of the field
Content Personalities, news, and general interest articles
A wide variety of subjects
Articles written by staff, may be unsigned
Report original research, discoveries, or experimentation
Publish research projects, their methodology, and significance
Articles written by contributing authors, with institution indicated
Advertisements Heavy Few or none
Reviewers Reviewed by editors Reviewed by editors, peers, and referees
Documentation Few or no bibliographic references Bibliographic references (footnotes, end notes, etc.)

National Geographic
National Wildlife

Biology of the Cell
Social Forces
School Science Review
Journal of Health Care Management

*sometimes also referred to as 'academic', 'refereed' or 'peer reviewed' articles

Trade Magazines

Some publications may fall into a third category between popular magazines and scholarly journals.  These are called Trade Publications, and generally have the characteristics of magazines in appearance, but are focused on a specific industry or trade. These:

  • Are directed toward members of a specific business, industry, or organization
  • Discuss industry news, trends, new products or techniques
  • Published by trade associations
  • Have few or no bibliographic references