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HED Community Colleges: APA Style References

Supplements the course content of HED6210 The Community College and HED6650 Community College Leadership.

Writing Center

American Psychological Association (APA)

APA style is the style described in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. It was established to be the format for journals published by the American Psychological Assocation, and has been adopted by departments of psychology, education, nursing, and other disciplines as the format for course assignments.

Basic APA Styles for the Annotated Bibliography

Same two authors publishing in the same year:

Adachi, P. J. C., & Willoughby, T. (2011a). The effect of video game competition and violence on aggressive behavior: Which characteristic has the greatest influence? Psychology of Violence, 1(4), 259–274. doi:10.1037/a0024908 

The digital object identifier (doi) is a code that indicates the url location of the article in electronic format, under certain circumstances it can be used as a link to the item, assuming the access is open to the searcher. 

Adachi, P. J. C., & Willoughby, T. (2011b). The effect of violent video games on aggression: Is it more than just the violence? Aggression and Violent Behavior, 16, 55–62. doi:10.1016/j.avb.2010.12.002  

Notice the change in the dates, also the italicized journal title and volume. The (no.) is necessary when each issue starts with page 1.

When there are more than seven authors:

Anderson, C. A., Shibuya, A., Ihori, N., Swing, E. L., Bushman, B. J., Sakamoto, A.,... Saleem, M. (2010). Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in Eastern and Western countries: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 136, 151–173. doi:10.1037/a0018251


Watts, D. J. (2011). Everything is obvious, once you know the answer: How common sense fails us. New York, NY:Crown Business/Random House.

Government Reports:

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2001). Youth violence: A report of the Surgeon General. Retrieved from

Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., Reddy, M., Borum, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2002). The final report and findings of the Safe School Initiative: Implications for the prevention of school attacks in the United States. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Education and U. S. Secret Service. Retrieved from

Australian Government, Attorney-General’s Department. (2010). Literature review on the impact of playing violent video games on aggression. Barton, Australian Capital Territory, Australia: Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved from


Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. (2013). How we work: Grant opportunities. Retrieved from

Gates, B., and Gates, M.. (n.d.) Who we are: Letter from Bill and Melinda Gates. Retrieved from Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation website:

Full text items accessed through ERIC:


Gritter, J. L. (2009). Hospitious adoption: How hospitality empowers children and transforms adoption. Atlanta GA: Child Welfare League of America. Retrieved from


Omer, K., and Ali, D. (2011). The effect of culture integrated language courses on foreign language education. US-China Education Review, 8(3), 257-263. Retrieved from


For Additional and Alternative Examples:

See Sec. 7 (pp. 193-224) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. on reserve in Carlson Library.


The Writing Lab, The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. (1995-2013) APA style. OWL: Purdue Online Writing Lab. Retrieved from

Academic Search Complete Citation Tool

To build a citation with the Academic Search Complete Citation Tool:

Step 1: Perform a search in Academic Search Complete (or other EBSCO databases)

Step 2: Click on the “Find It!” link:


Step 3: Select "Cite" from the Tools menu:

Step 4: Copy and paste the selected citation style. Be sure to review the citation for correct formatting.