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Artificial Intelligence

This guide is dedicated to the concept of Artificial Intelligence: what it is, how it works, debates and discussion, and potential uses in the disciplines.

AI for Research

Potentially positive uses for AI in research publishing:

  • AI tools to streamline the publication process
  • Expedition of the review process
  • Smaller editorial teams
  • Improve inclusivity and accessibility (e.g., equity in publication through translation of works, reduction in costs)

Considerations/Reservations for use of AI in publishing:

  • Bias of AI tools
  • Transparency (What is the source of the data?)
  • Research integrity and ethics
  • Violation of confidentiality
  • Loss of the authentic voice of the writer
  • Integrity of the information (reproducibility, citation)
  • Peer review anonymity
  • Issues with AI detection tools

Finding Materials on AI for Research

Database Searching

To find articles on artificial intelligence, search in an appropriate database from the list of subject databases available through the UToledo Libraries: Some examples:

  • Search in Academic Search Complete or Web of Science for general seaching
  • Search in Computer Source, Computers & Applied Sciences Complete, or Science Reference Center for science- or technology-oriented topics 
  • Search in Art Full Text (H.W. Wilson) or Art & Architecture Complete for topics on the arts and AI
  • Search in CINAHL, Embase, Medline, or PubMed for medically-related topics

Boolean Searching

Use Boolean search techniques for better results.

Diagram of Boolean Operators AND, OR, and NOT









For example:

  • artificial intelligence AND sentiment analysis will return articles that include both concepts
  • artificial intelligence AND (healthcare workers OR nurses OR medical workers OR healthcare professionals) will return articles that include artificial intelligence and at least one of the terms in the parentheses
  • artificial intelligence NOT ChatGPT will exclude articles on ChatGPT from the results

Subject Searching

Some databases include a list of subject terms (sometimes referred to as a Thesaurus). Searching for a subject term will give results for related (or "mapped") terms such as those compiled below: 

Related terms:

  • ambient intelligence
  • artificial general intelligence
  • artificial intelligence
  • artificial thinking
  • automated reasoning
  • cognitive technology
  • computational intelligence
  • computer heuristics
  • computer reasoning
  • computer vision system*
  • deep learning
  • knowledge acquisition and computer*
  • knowledge representation* and computer*
  • machine intelligence
  • machine learning
  • multicriteria decision analysis

Subjects terms have specific designations in certain databases:

  • EBSCO Medline and CINAHL: (MH "Artificial Intelligence")
  • Embase: 'artificial intelligence'/exp
  • PubMed: "artificial intelligence"[MeSH Terms]
  • SocINDEX: DE "ARTIFICIAL intelligence"

Search Engines

Consider supplementing your database searching with a search engine like these suggested:

  • Google Scholar
  • CORE (for open-access research papers)
  • Semantic Scholar (uses AI-powered algorithms to find hidden connections and links between research topics)

Grey Literature Searching

To find materials like government reports, white papers, and other materials not locked behind a paywall, try searching in Google using the filter or

Example: machine learning + education

***Contact a librarian if you would like assistance with your searching***

Raymon H. Mulford Health Science Library Phone/E-mail: