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Evidence: Home

Resources available at LaValley Law Library relating to the area of Evidence.


Rules of evidence are the rules by which a court determines what evidence is admissible at trial. In the United States, federal courts follow the Federal Rules of Evidence. States generally follow their own rules of evidence. 


  • Relevance
    • Definition
    • Role of Judge and Jury
    • Grounds for Exclusion
  • Definition of Hearsay
    • Definition
    • Offered to Prove the Trust of the Matter Asserted
    • Prior Statements by Testifying Witness
  • Hearsay Exceptions
    • Statements by Party Opponents/Admissions
    • Unrestricted Exceptions
    • Declarant Unavailable 
    • Catchall Exception
    • Protected Witness Testimony
  • Confrontation Clause
  • Character and Habit Evidence
    • Definition of Character Evidence
    • Methods of Proving Character
    • Character Evidence Offered to Prove Conduct on Specific Occasion Is Generally Prohibited
    • Character Evidence Generally Admissible When Character Is Element of Charge, Claim, or Defense
    • Prior Acts Admissible to Prove Specific Points
    • Evidence of Habit or Routine Practice Admissible
  • Competency of Witness
  • Direct and Cross-Examination
    • Order of Examining Witnesses
    • Direct Examination
    • Cross-Examination
    • Redirect Examination
    • Questioning by Judge
    • Exclusion of Witnesses 
  • Impeachment and Rehabilitation
    • Who may impeach
    • Bias
    • Defect in sensory or mental capacity
    • Bad Character: Prior Bad Acts
    • Bad Character: Reputation or Opinion Evidence
    • Prior Inconsistent Statements
    • Contradiction
    • Rehabilitation
    • Prior Consistent Statements
  • Opinion and Expert Testimony
  • Authentication
    • Tangible Objects
    • Writings
    • Electronic Recordings
    • Photographs, X-rays, Medical Images
    • Telephone Conversations
    • Self-Authentication
    • Demonstrative Evidence
  • Best Evidence Doctrine
  • Privileges
    • Attorney-Client Privilege
    • Marital Privilege: Spousal Testimony
    • Marital Privilege: Marital Confidences
    • Physician-Patient Privilege
    • Psychotherapist-Patient Privilege
    • Other Privileges
    • Privilege Against Self-Incrimination
  • Burdens and Presumptions
    • Burden of Proof Defined
    • Standards of Proof
    • Assignment of Burdens in Civil Cases
    • Assignment of Burdens in Criminal Cases
    • Presumptions and Related Concepts Defined
    • Sources and Examples of Presumptions
    • Reasons for Creating Presumptions
    • Conflicting Presumptions
    • Relationship Between Presumptions and Burdens
    • Effect of Presumption When Counterproof Contests the Basic Fact
    • Effect of Presumption When Counterproof Contests the Presumed Fact
    • Effect of Presumptions Under FRE 301
    • Recognition of State Presumptions in Federal Civil Cases
    • Presumptions in Criminal Cases
    • Inferences in Criminal Cases
  • Judicial Notice
    • Adjudicative Facts
    • Procedural Issues
    • Judicial Notice of Law

Evidence Blogs

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Christie Lowry

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