Case-control studies are a type of quantitative research "designed to sample a group of people with and a group of people without the disease or the outcome measure being studied" (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p. 209). The cases are individuals with the disease or outcome measure, and the controls are individuals without the disease or outcome measure. The purpose of a case-control study is to test whether there is an association between an exposure and a disease, condition or outcome measure (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p. 209).
Level of Evidence: IV
Each JBI Checklist provides tips and guidance on what to look for to answer each question. These tips begin on page 4.
|Frequently Asked Question||Response|
|In regards to Question 6, what exactly is a confounding factor?||A confounder or confounding factor/confounding variable is often referred to as a third variable that could potentially impact the study's results. See the definition in the Cochrane Glossary. Confounding factors/variables or confounders may be listed in the study's limitations section or within the study's main results section.|
|For Question 7, how can I tell whether strategies were used to deal with the confounding factors in the study?||Check for multivariate analysis or regression analysis in the study's data analysis/statistical analysis section. See the definition in the Cochrane Glossary.|