A cohort study is a type of quantitative research. They are often described as "natural experiments" (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p. 210). They are like case-control studies in reverse. In a cohort study, individuals are selected based on their exposure status. Researchers then investigate whether something individuals are exposed to is associated with the risk of a disease or condition (Schmidt & Brown, 2019, p. 210).
Schmidt N. A. & Brown J. M. (2019). Evidence-based practice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Each JBI Checklist provides tips and guidance on what to look for to answer each question. These tips begin on page 4.
|Frequently Asked Question||Response|
|In regards to Question 4, what exactly is a confounding factor?||A confounder or confounding factor/confounding variable is often referred to as a third variable that could potentially impact the study's results. Read a definition and description here. Confounding factors/variables or confounders may be listed in the study's limitations section or within the study's main results section.|
|For Question 5, how can I tell whether strategies were used to deal with the confounding factors in the study?||Check for multivariate analysis or regression analysis in the study's data analysis/statistical analysis section. Read a definition and description here.|
For more help: Each JBI Checklist provides detailed guidance on what to look for to answer each question on the checklist. These explanatory notes begin on page four of each Checklist. Please review these carefully as you conduct critical appraisal using JBI tools.
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Euser, A. M., Zoccali, C., Jager, K. J., & Dekker, F. W. (2009). Cohort studies: Prospective versus retrospective. Nephron. Clinical Practice, 113(3), c214–c217. https://doi.org/10.1159/000235241
Nohr, E. A., & Liew, Z. (2018). How to investigate and adjust for selection bias in cohort studies. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 97(4), 407–416. https://doi.org/10.1111/aogs.13319
Song, J. W., & Chung, K. C. (2010). Observational studies: Cohort and case-control studies. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 126(6), 2234–2242. https://doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0b013e3181f44abc
Wang, X., & Kattan, M. W. (2020). Cohort studies: Design, analysis, and reporting. Chest, 158(1S), S72–S78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2020.03.014