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Citation Guide: NEW APA

Guide to the MLA and APA Citation Styles; Latest Update 2016

APA 7th Edition Updated Style Manual

Updated APA 7th Edition

Basic Citation Styles-Journal Article and Book

Basic Citation Styles-Websites

Webpage on a Website

Examples with an author:

Woodyatt, A. (2019, September 10). Daytime naps once or twice a week may be linked to a healthy heart, researchers say. CNN.


Fagan, J. (2019, March 25). Nursing clinical brain. OER Commons. Retrieved September 17, 2019, from

Examples with no author but an organization name:

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, July). Anxiety disorders. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death



Examples with no author, and no organization name (But NEVER cite Wikipedia as a source, right?):

Quantum mechanics. (2019, November 19). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 25, 2019 from

General Hints and/or Notes for Website formatting:

  • Provide as specific a date as is available on the webpage. This might be a year only; a year and month; or a year, month, and day.


  • Italicize the title of a webpage.


  • The website name is NOT italicized.


  • When the author of the webpage and the publisher of the website are the same, omit the publisher name to avoid repetition (as in the World Health Organization example).


  • When contents of a page are meant to be updated over time but are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference (as in the Fagan example).


  • Use the webpage on a website format for articles from news websites such as CNN and HuffPost (these sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers). Use the newspaper article category for articles from newspaper websites such as The New York Times or The Washington Post.


  • Create a reference to an open educational resources (OER) page only when the materials are available for download directly (i.e., the materials are on the page and/or can be downloaded as PDFs or other files). If you are directed to another website, create a reference to the specific webpage on that website where the materials can be retrieved. Use this format for material in any OER repository, such as OER Commons, OASIS, or MERLOT.


  • Do not create a reference or in-text citation for a whole website. To mention a website in general, and not any particular information on that site, provide the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses. For example, you might mention that you used a website to create a survey.


In Text Formatting Examples

Examples of the layout of the components of in-text citations:

According to Kwan (2015, p.16), the Internet is a useful research tool.
Kwan (2015,  p.16) states that the Internet is a useful research tool.
Kwan (2015) states that that the Internet is a useful research tool (p.16).
“The Internet is a useful research tool,” states Kwan (2015,  p.16).
“The Internet is a useful research tool” (Kwan, 2015,  p.16).

          No page numbers…use appropriate heading, then paragraph numbers

According to Kwan (2015, Internet Tools section, para. 27)

Examples of how to format in-text citations: Verbs and verb phrases

Kwan (2015,  p.16) states that the Internet is a useful research tool. 
Kwan (2015,  p.16) suggests that the Internet is a useful research tool.
Kwan (2015,  p.16) indicates that the Internet is a useful research tool.
Kwan (2015,  p.16) points out that the Internet is a useful research tool.
Kwan (2015,  p.16) presents evidence which shows that the Internet is a useful research tool.

For a controversial topic: Kwan (2015, p.16) argues that that the Internet is a time-saving research tool.

Do not use 'says', because it is bad style. Also, do not use 'claims', because this means that you think that the information may not be correct. At this early stage of your academic writing career I would avoid using verbs implying criticism/doubt of a writer.