Citation: the basic, pertinent information needed to find the full text of a publication. Citation formats vary according to the field of study and/or requirements of particular publications.
Citation Style: dictates the information necessary for a citation and how the information is ordered, as well as punctuation and other formatting. Styles include MLA, APA, Chicago, and Turabian.
Bibliography: a list of citations that appears at the end of a paper, article, chapter, or book. The bibliography is called a Works Cited list in MLA. The bibliography is referred to as a list of References in APA format.
Annotated Bibliography: each citation is followed by a brief note—or annotation—that describes and/or evaluates the source and the information found in it.
MLA: is based on the MLA Handbook, 9th Edition 2021. MLA Style is commonly used in the Arts and Humanities, which is why it is frequently taught in English classes.
APA: is based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. APA Style is commonly used in the Social and Applied Sciences, Psychology, and Education.
Chicago: is derived from the The Chicago Manual of Style, published by the University of Chicago. Chicago Style is often used in history research as well as many other disciplines.
Turabian: Kate Turabian is the author of A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, the Chicago Style guide commonly used by students. It is based on the Chicago Style.
When you are collecting references for your research paper, remember to record what is needed for your citation. Some databases will provide the citation for you when you email the article. However, you should remember to at least jot down the basic information so you can find it again in case something gets lost.
Books or Chapters:
(In addition if an eBook)
Periodical or Magazine Articles:
(In addition if accessed from a database or website)
(in addition if accessed from a database or website)
(In addition if an eBook or database)