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Fake News: Identify, Evaluate, Stop: Categories

Learn to verify fact-based news resources for research.

Why does it matter?

  • You deserve the truth
  • Fake news destroys your credibility
  • Fake news can hurt you
  • Real news can benefit you

UToledo Responds to Fake News

Fake News Categories

There are four broad categories of fake news, according to media professor Melissa Zimdars of Merrimack College.

CATEGORY 1: Fake, false, or regularly misleading websites that are shared on Facebook and social media. Some of these websites may rely on “outrage” by using distorted headlines and decontextualized or dubious information in order to generate likes, shares, and profits.

CATEGORY 2: Websites that may circulate misleading and/or potentially unreliable information

CATEGORY 3: Websites which sometimes use clickbait-y headlines and social media descriptions

CATEGORY 4: Satire/comedy sites, which can offer important critical commentary on politics and society, but have the potential to be shared as actual/literal news

Social Networking and Fake News

Political Satire and Parody

These sites are known to perpetuate "fake news". Some are known as parody and satire sites and are purposefully fake but have the potential to be reported literally. Some, however, are taken seriously as news sources when they are really conspiracy theory websites, extremely hyperpartisan, and utilize false reporting.

For a full list of False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and Satirical “News” Sources click this link!