Skip to main content

Animal Research Alternatives: Keyword Suggestions

To support research scientists in searching the literature in order to comply with the Animal Welfare Act (7USC 2131-2156)

General Keyword Suggestions

Use wildcards to search for variant endings.
For example, model* will search for model, models, modeling, etc.
Wildcard characters (as *,#, $) vary among databases.

General 

alternative
animal testing alternative
assay
distress
euthanasia
learn*
imag*
instruction*
interactive*
mathematical model*
model*
prediction*
sedative
system*
teaching
theoretical model*
video display
virtual
welfare
well-being

More at  Animal Use Alternatives Thesaurus Terminology and Animal Welfare Scope Notes

[Adapted from Searching for Animal Alternatives (Arnold Library LibGuide) and The EURL ECVAM search guide]

 

3R Suggestions (Reduction, Refinement, and Replacement)

The 3Rs are defined here 

Use wildcards to search for variant endings.
For example, model* will search for model, models, modeling, etc.
Wildcard characters (as *,#, $) vary among databases.

Replacement
aided
animal testing alternative
assisted
artificial
cadaver
computer*
imag*
instruction*
interactive*
mathematical model*
model*
platinate
prediction*
simulation*
software
teaching
theoretical model*
virtual (reality) (surgery)

Reduction
analgesic OR analgesia OR painkiller OR anxiolytic
anesthesic OR anasthesic OR anaesthetic
artifical OR vitro OR culture
bacteria OR virus
statistic*
analysis
experimental design
housing OR facility OR caging
fish OR mollusc OR cephalod
insect OR anarchid OR invertebrate OR amphibian
mannequin OR maniken OR model
model
monitor OR evaluate OR supervisemodel*
positve reinforcement OR animal training
simulation OR digital image OR interactive
reduc*
restrain OR immobilize OR restrict
technique OR method OR procedure
tissue OR cell OR organ

Refinement
analgesic OR analgesia OR painkiller
anesthesic OR anasthesic OR anaesthetic
distress
environmental enrichment
housing OR facility OR caging
monitor OR evaluate OR supervise
noninvasive
pain
positve reinforcement OR animal training
postoperative
postsurg*
restrain OR immobilize OR restrict
technique OR method OR procedure

More at  Animal Use Alternatives Thesaurus Terminology and Animal Welfare Scope Notes
 

[Adapted from Searching for Animal Alternatives (Arnold Library LibGuide) and The EURL ECVAM search guide]

Animal Use Alternatives Thesaurus Terminology

This USDA thesaurus shows an alphabetical listing along with associated wordblocks.
Each term is shown along with any associated broader terms (BT), narrower terms (NT), and words to use instead (USE:)