In order to track down a citation, whether from a list of library database results, a bibliography you found on the web or in a journal, it’s helpful to know the identifying features of different types of publications, as well as where they can be found.
J. Li, G. Ananthasuresh, J. Micromech. Microeng. 11(1) (2001) 38-47.
Identifying Features: Author(s), followed by Journal Title (or Abbreviation), then Volume Number (sometimes issue number) Year, and finally page number.
Found: The first place to look for journals is the UToledo Library Catalog, searching by TITLE. However, you need to use the full title, not the abbreviation. If you don’t know the full title, you can sometimes find it if you:
t:micromech** AND t:microeng** and MATERIAL TYPE = PERIODICAL/SER
The UToledo Library Catalog lists titles that we subscribe to either in print or as electronic journals. If we do not subscribe to a journal, you can use the Interlibrary Loan web form to order a photocopy from another library… it can take up to two weeks to arrive, but it is a free service.
K. Okuyama, “Sintering”, in: K. Linoya, K. Gotoh, K. Giashitami (eds.) Powder Technology Handbook, 2nd ed., Marcel Dekker Inc.
Identifying Features: Author, “Chapter Title” in: Editors, Book title, Publisher, Place of Publication, Year, Page.
Found: To find a book, you first should identify the book title (usually it comes right before the publisher’s name) and then you can do a TITLE search in the UToledo Library Catalog. If there are multiple entries, you should narrow it down by the book author or editor’s name, the edition, or the year. If you do not find your book in the UToledo Library Catalog, click on Search OhioLINK and it will look for the book at any college or university in
M. Egashira, SPIE Proceedings 3673 (1999) 141-151.
A. Kanarachos, A new approach of the fem analysis of two-dimensional elastic structures using global (Coons’s) interpolation functions, ECCM ’99.
N. Osakabe, M. Kurosawa, Proceedings of the IEEE Workshop on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems,
Identifying Features: Varied. Look for the words: Proceedings, Congress, Meeting, Symposium, etc. Also, look for acronyms with dates attached (like ECCM’99), or names of cities with dates attached.
Found: Proceedings and conference papers are often more difficult to locate, simply because they come out irregularly and libraries do not tend to subscribe to them like they do for journals. So a library may only have one year of a proceedings, not the whole set. The various ways that a conference paper might be cited means that it is often impossible to just look for them by TITLE. A more effective strategy is one of the following.
Micro electro mechanical AND
If you still cannot find your conference, it may not be owned by any OhioLINK library. Contact a reference librarian to help you order the paper through Interlibrary Loan. Also, some conferences never issue printed proceedings, and your citation may be to an oral presentation or poster session at a meeting. These will not be able to be found in any library.
Fournier, Ronald L.; Sarver, Jeffrey G. Immunoprotective membrane for medical uses. PCT Int. Appl. (1997), WO 9717129 A1 19970515
Ashtiani, Cyrus N; Stuart, Thomas A. Circulating Current
Identifying Features: Varied. Usually Inventor, Patent title, and Patent number codes. Look for US (
Found: Patents, especially those from the
There is also a LibGuide for Patents that provides more information on patent searching and sources for patent information.
International Organization for Standardization, 5660: Part I: Heat release rate from building products (Cone Calorimeter Method.) 32 p. (1993)
American Society for Testing and Materials, E 1590-95a: Standard test method for fire testing of real scale mattresses. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 04.07, pp. 1381-1400, (1997).
Identifying Features: Standards Organization, Standard Number: Name, sometime printed source, Year.
Found: See the Engineering Standards LibGuide for a list of sources of standards. The UToledo and OhioLINK catalogs may be helpful, as well as the Interlibrary Loan service. You may also contact the Engineering Librarian for help.
K. Ramaswami, Process planning for shape deposition manufacturing, PhD Thesis,
Identifying Features: Author, Dissertation Title, University, Year. Often will say ‘Thesis’ or ‘Dissertation’.
Found: UToledo typically does not have dissertations other than the publications of our own graduate students, which are shelved by year and last name on the fifth floor of Carlson Library. Dissertations from other
UToledo Library Catalog- to search for books and multimedia.
● Search by: Keyword, Subject, Title, Author, or Number
● Save marked records check the box
● To narrow or expand search use
•Boolean Searching: AND, OR, and NOT
•Truncation: cut off the end of a word and use an asterisk “*” to get more results
Ex: educat* = searches for education, educate, educators, etc…
•Use Synonyms and related words to search
•Find subject headings in records to expand and narrow search
● Limiting options: format of material, year, location
● Integrate different media types for research
There are many style guides available. When working on your bibliographies, follow your professor's, editor's, or journal's instructions first. If they have none, you can choose one of the styles below. ACS (American Chemical Society) and AIP (American Institute of Physics) have more technical examples and are used more in engineering than APA (American Psychological Association), Chicago, MLA (Modern Languages Association), and Turabian.
Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue. Students, members of the community, and users worldwide will find information to assist with many writing projects. Teachers and trainers may use this material for in-class and out-of-class instruction.
ACS Style Guide (Carlson Circulation Desk QD8.5 .A25 2006) Published by the American Chemical Society, the ACS Style Guide contains many useful scientific examples
AIP Style Manual (Carlson Circulation Desk QC5.45 .A45 1990) Published by the American Institute of Physics. For guidance in writing, editing, and preparing physics manuscripts for publication.
University of Wisconsin - Madison's guide to the Chicago Manual of Style.
Lehigh University Libraries' - Citation Guides and Style Manuals: Engineering and Applied Science.
Duke University's Citing Sources. Has good comparison tables on APA, Chicago, MLA, and Turabian, styles used by humanists and social scientists.
Physical Review style (APS journals)
This box is based on a Webpage created by Jill H. Powell, Reference and Instruction Coordinator, Cornell University Engineering Library
How to avoid plagiarism or copyright enfringement issues
Impact factors for a journal or author is a complicated and sometimes controversial topic. This guide will help you understand the process by which impact factors are determined and the potential shortcomings of the factors.